Mr. Logon notes that while glacial melting is a long-term concern, it does not receive the same attention in Swiss cantonal politics as immediate problems of floods, avalanches, and other crises. India Complete melting of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets would raise global sea level between 16 and 33 ft (5 and 10 m), with massive consequences for coastal and island ecosystems and for many human settlements. Glacial retreat is the recession of a glacier. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. The glaciers of the Cordillera Blanca mountain range in the Andes to the north of the Peruvian capital Lima have been in steady retreat for several decades but in … A glacier grows wherever snow accumulates faster than it melts. Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/energy-government-and-defense-magazines/glacial-retreat. In January 2008, a group of NASA and university researchers announced that ice loss from Antarctica had increased by 75% since 1996, from about 112 billion metric tons of ice per year to about 196 bil-. These accelerations were partly due to the lubricating effect of water from melting surface ice, but a complete understanding of the acceleration of Greenland’s glaciers was not yet available in 2008. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. A glacier is essentially a river of ice. There it feeds riverlike glaciers that slide down valleys to the sea. Since ice can appear on or in the earth as well as in its seas and other bodies of water and…, Introduction Current glacier retreat is a challenge for glacier monitoring in three ways: First, the rapid glacier retreat with disintegration of large glaciers into smaller ones, the formation of periglacial lakes, and the increased debris cover makes it difficult to keep up length change and mass balance measurements. Natural hazards are a prominent issue due to the large population within the Alps, and settlements are at risk of floods, avalanches, and landslides related to glacial melting and retreat. All Rights Reserved. Greenland’s net mass loss doubled from 1996 to 2005, most likely, according to scientists, as a result of human-caused climate change. All glacial water eventually finds its way to the sea. ." (October 16, 2020). The world’s glaciers are in retreat. The world's glaciers are retreating at a concerning rate. During the rainy season, water is stored in the glaciers and the melt water helps maintain river systems during dry periods. It has been estimated that there were approximately 150 glaciers present in 1850, around the end of the Little Ice Age and most glaciers were still present in 1910 when the park was established. The Holocene, starting with abrupt warming 11,700 years ago, resulted in rapid melting of the remaining ice sheets of North America and Europe. The director of the group, according to a press release from the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), said that the latest figures were “part of what appears to be an accelerating trend with no apparent end in sight.” Several glaciers in the Himalayas and elsewhere could disappear completely within a few decades, if current melting trends continue. Last year, it lost 115 meters—though in 2004 and 2005, the glacier gained about 50 meters per year. Glaciers are large masses of ice that flow slowly downhill. “All About Glaciers.” http://nsidc.org/glaciers/ (accessed May 2, 2008). GLACIER: A large mass of ice slowly moving over a landmass, resulting from a multi-year surplus accumulation of snowfall in excess of snowmelt. Mass loss from Greenland and Antarctica has also accelerated. However, a shortage of data on glacier-fed river flow makes it difficult to predict the timing and magnitude of such events. In it place it leaves morraines. Data going back to 1700 show that glacier tongues were stable until about 1850, and then began to shorten steadily in the European Alps, North America, Asia, and the Southern Hemisphere. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). “SWISS GLACIER RETREATS AT A RAPID CLIP.” CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR JULY 17, 2007. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. A fjord is a long, narrow valley with steep sides carved by glacial movement. The retreat accelerated in the late 1990s, and by 2015, three glaciers that fed into HPS-12 from the sides were cut off. Glaciers are large masses of ice that flow slowly downhill. To meet the challenges of ensuring water security for the populations that depend on these glaciers, the Atlas makes a series of recommendations for policy makers in the region. In areas where the glaciers are melting, river runoff will increase for a period before a sharp decline in runoff. The retreat accelerated in the late 1990s, and by 2015, three glaciers that fed into HPS-12 from the sides were cut off. Statistics predict future levels of glacier loss will reach an all-time high. . Retreat of the Glaciers Our glacial deposits are largely the result of the great continental glacial melt event that ended the Pleistocene. If accumulation is greater than ablation, the glacier advances (lengthens). Glacial retreat is a misnomer as glaciers never really move in reverse. The problem is not simply that the Aletsch is melting, scientists say. Still, as a result of all the broader climate change effects, glaciers are rapidly melting with huge chunks falling off into the sea, while elsewhere the ice begins to retreat to land. The article acknowledges the consequences of such glaciers melting rapidly if the world’s climate continues to rise. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. “Extracting a Climate Signal from 169 Glacier Records.” Science 308 (2005): 675–677. When ice glaciers melt faster, temperatures rise further, and more glaciers shrink, which creates a vicious cycle that is significantly ch… This is because global warming allows air to carry higher humidity, resulting in greater winter snowfall. On the eve of a European Commission Green Paper released June 26 (“Adapting to Climate Change in Europe—Options for EU Action”) EC President José Manuel Barroso visited the Greenland glacier of Sermeq Kujalleq in Ilulissat. Ice-sheet mass loss does not, as in the case of alpine glaciers, take the form of ice turning to water and flowing to the sea; rather, glaciers at the edge of the sheet speed up, dumping more water into the sea in the form of icebergs. In areas that are heavily dependent on water runoff from glaciers that melt during the warmer summer months, a continuation of the current retreat will eventually deplete the glacial ice and substantially reduce or eliminate runoff. While the thickness changes have fluctuated, losses of more than 1 meter of thickness have occurred in the past 15 to 20 years. These observations surprised climatologists, forcing them to revise their earlier view that glaciers as large as the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets will respond to climate changes only over 1,000 years or more. Hundreds of such glaciers feed water to the ocean around the coasts of Greenland and Antarctica, and account for most glacial flow on the planet. Ice sheets are large glaciers that form on the central regions of continent-size landmasses where water is transported by clouds and dropped in the form of snow. Glacial retreat: “With few exceptions, all the alpine glaciers of the world are losing mass and it is predicted that this trend will continue as global warming progresses. Ice sheets eventually get so deep—the average thickness of the Antarctic ice sheet is about 1.3 mi (2.1 km)—that the ice flows slowly under its own weight toward the edges of the landmass. Ice sheet retreat initiated ca. National Snow and Ice Data Center (US). Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. As glaciers retreat, they leave behind deposits of rocks. Glacial melting has two main impacts on the environment. The retreat—combined with some of the most extensive thinning on the icefield—created new areas of open water in the fjord (dark blue) and exposed rocky fjord walls (brown). Alpine glaciers have recently accelerated their retreat and large ice-sheet glaciers have been accelerating their flow to the sea along the coasts of Gre… Most of the world’s mountain (alpine) glaciers have been retreating since about 1850. The Aletsch is the largest glacier in the Alps. This has resulted in net mass losses for alpine and ice-sheet glaciers. (Glaciers are flowing masses of ice, created by years of snowfal…, Gjellerup, Karl (2 June 1857 - 11 October 1919), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/energy-government-and-defense-magazines/glacial-retreat. Glaciers in the Alps have lost more than 20 percent of their area since the mid-19th century. However, the date of retrieval is often important. About 75% of the world’s freshwater is in the form of 7.9 million cubic mi (33 million cubic km) of ice. Studied by glaciologists, the coincidence of glacial retreat with the measured increase of atmospheric greenhouse gases is evidence underpinning anthropogenic climate change. These, too, eventually melt. Glacial retreat slowed and even reversed, in many cases, between 1950 and 1980 as a slight global cooling occurred. At their terminal ends, glaciers may either melt directly, as most alpine glaciers do, or break up into icebergs that float off on the ocean. “I call it the retreat of the glacier,” says Laudo Albrecht, a local director of Pronatura, an environmental group with 100,000 members in Switzerland. Zealand and western Scandinavia (a small fraction of the global whole) advanced in the late 1990s. Globally, not all glaciers thinned during 2005–2006, but the overall trend was strongly toward accelerated melting. The rapid retreat of these small alpine glaciers reflects changes in recent climate as glaciers respond to altered temperature and precipitation. Glacier retreat results in a variety of negative consequences, including increased sea levels, floods, and fresh water shortages. “Meltdown in the Mountains.” http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp?DocumentID=530&ArticleID=5760 (accessed May 2, 2008). Glacial retreat created other features of the landscape. Yala Glacier, Langtang Valley, Nepal; the lake in the foreground is evidence of glacial retreat, according to the study. Glaciers have advanced and retreated over large areas of the Northern Hemisphere over geological time, their growth accompanying the cold periods termed glacials (or, more popularly, ice ages). : Glaciers Shrinking at Record Rate.” March 17, 2008. http://www.cnn.com/2008/TECH/03/17/un.climate.ap/index.html?iref=newssearch (accessed May 2, 2008). Higher temperatures and less snowfall have been causing many glaciers around the world to retreat recently. Barroso says that the EC will push, at a UN climate summit in Bali this December, for a new treaty to replace the Kyoto Protocol, which ends in 2012. "Glacial Retreat In 2008, some research showed that dark soot (carbon) particles from burning fuel may be contributing as much to Himalayan glacial melting as global warming forced by greenhouse gases. Most glaciers have been retreating for decades due to climate change, a problem that has been particularly acute in the tropical Andes since the 1950s. In particular, the rate of retreat of 30 closely observed “reference glaciers” around the world had doubled from 2004–2005 to 2005–2006. it becomes smaller and smaller. 1) Glaciers carve fjords in valleys where they travel. Forero, Juan. https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/energy-government-and-defense-magazines/glacial-retreat, "Glacial Retreat Since then, the massive glacier that filled the bay has retreated 65 miles to the heads of its inlets. ." However, since 1980 a significant global warming has led to glacier retreat becoming increasingly rapid and ubiquitous, so much so that many glaciers have disappeared and the existence of a great number of the remaining glaciers of the world is threatened. An estimated 1.5 to 2 billion people in Asia (Himalayan region) and in Europe (The Alps) and the Americas (Andes and Rocky Mountains) depend on river systems with glaciers inside their catchment areas. The retreat of mountain glaciers, notably in western North America, Asia, the Alps, Indonesia and Africa, and tropical and subtropical regions of South America, has been used to provide qualitative evidence for the rise in global temperatures since the late 19th century. Global warming creates temperature increases, causing glaciers to melt faster. Without the water from mountain glaciers, serious problems are inevitable and the UN’s Millennium Development Goals for fighting poverty and improving access to clean water will be jeopardized” United Nations Environment Programme, 2007 Global Outlook for Ice and Snow. Glacial Retreat? Mid-latitude mountain ranges such as the Himalayas, Alps, Rocky Mountains, Cascade Range, Glacier National Park, and the southern Andes. Glacial retreat since 1850 has been worldwide and rapid, affecting the availability of fresh water for irrigation and domestic use, mountain recreation, animals and plants. “As Andean Glaciers Shrink, Water Worries Grow.” New York Times (November 24, 2002). It retreats—that is, its terminal edge, the end of the glacial tongue, ends at progressively higher elevations—whenever melting exceeds accumulation. A glacier is a large, perennial accumulation of crystalline ice, snow, rock, sediment, and often liquid water that originates on land and moves down slope under the influence of its own weight and gravity. lion, despite increased snow accumulation in the center of the continent. grown even more than accumulation. Glacially-supplied water resources are vital for energy, agriculture, and other human uses in Switzerland. Long-term mass balance, the difference between accumulation and ablation, is determined by climate, that is, long-term average weather. In Norway, the Alps, and the Pacific Northwest of North America, glacier runoff is important for hydropower. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis: Contribution of Working. UN scientists warned that people who depend on glacial meltwaters for clean water might be seriously affected by the disappearance of glaciers within a few decades; for example, in India about 750 million people depend on glacial melt from the Himalayas. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. a. This is also occurring in tropical glacier summits such as Mount Kilimanjaro in Africa, and Chacaltaya Glacier in Bolivia which are showing some of the largest proportionate glacial loss. CONCEPT The processes of accumulation and ablation are complex and differ from glacier to glacier, and between alpine glaciers and the ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland. Together, evaporation and melting are termed ablation. Accelerated melting of the glaciers will first afflict downstream populations with increased flooding, then with water shortages as glacier-fed rivers dry up. While most of Antarctica is remaining cold, rapid increases in summer ice melt, glacier retreat and ice shelf collapses are being observed in Antarctic Peninsula, where the stronger winds passing through Drake Passage are making the climate warm exceptionally quickly. Glaciology is the study of ice and its effects. A reduction in runoff will affect the ability to irrigate crops and will reduce summer stream flows necessary to keep dams and reservoirs replenished. In locations such as the Andes of South America and Himalayas in Asia, the demise of glaciers in these regions will have potential impact on water supplies, and flooding from ‘mountain tsunamis’. Yet the implication of glacier and ice cap melts are being seized, dramatically, by federal Europe. Glacial Retreat: The majority of the world's glaciers are in retreat. Subsequently, until about 1940 glaciers around the world retreated as the climate warmed. A glacier is a mass of ice larger than 247 acres (one tenth of a square kilometer) that starts on land, but can move out over co…, Ice is the solid state of water . The recent substantial retreat and an acceleration of the rate of retreat since 1995 of a number of key outlet glaciers of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets foreshadow a rise in sea level,having a potentially dramatic effect on coastal regions worldwide. 50 kilometers of ice [a year]… three times more than the Alps.” Scientists argue that ocean levels could rise seven meters should Greenland’s ice melt entirely. What happens during a glacial retreat? The Little Ice Age reached its maximum extent around 1750. Glaciers of less than 100 meters are likely to disappear completely within the next 50 to 100 years, at this rate of change. “At this rate, by 2100 about 80 percent of the surface of the glacier will be gone,” says Ralph Logon, a Swiss geo-morphologist and expert on glaciers. In the past 30 years, studies show, the Aletsch has been losing 50 meters of length a year and is thinning. The following article recognizes the concern within environmental and scientific communities for the speed at which the Aletsch Glacier, the largest in the Swiss Alps, is melting. The retreat of glaciers since 1850 affects the availability of fresh water for irrigation and domestic use, mountain recreation, animals and plants that depend on glacier-melt, and, in the longer term, the level of the oceans. 16 Oct. 2020 . As global warming raises temperatures glaciers are retreating almost everywhere in the world. glacier could lose about 80% of its surface by 2100. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Sengupta, Somini. Within 40 years the effects of climate change could mean a need to “increase the height of dikes, [relocate] ports, industry, and entire cities and villages from low-lying coastal areas….”. The report warned that all tropical glaciers, such as those in the Andes Mountains in South America, were likely to disappear in the next 15 years. If ablation is greater than accumulation, the glacier thins and eventually retreats (shortens). The melting rate for 2005–2006 was four times greater than that for 1980–1999. The retreating glacial ice never actually flows backwards; the ice simply melts away faster than is replenished from new glacial ice formation in the zone of accumulation. What concerns scientists is the pace of the melt. 19,000 years ago and accelerated after ca. Glaciation is the accumulation of ice in a given area when more snow falls in winter than melts in summer. However, ablation—mostly in the form of summer melting—has. It was a massive retreat of a … Encyclopedia.com. Landslides falling into glacial lakes may cause tsunamis and river floods and thus pose hazard to … The Athabasca Glacier is not alone in its retreat: Since 1960, glaciers around the world have lost an estimated 8,000 cubic kilometers (1,900 cubic miles) of ice. A glacier grows wherever snow accumulates faster than it melts. Encyclopedia.com. The commission’s report argues for dramatic prevention measures to combat the effects of a temperature rise. Most is located in the ice sheets of Antarctica (91%) and Greenland (7.9%). Over 100 million people live no more than 3 ft (1 m) above sea level. Glacier Bay today is the product of the Little Ice Age, a geologically recent glacial advance in northern regions. Bolivia and Peru may face drinking-water shortages in the near future due to alpine glacial retreat; India and its neighbors, with their much larger populations, face an even larger crisis. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Along the coastline of the park, glaciers have cut deep valleys into the mountains. c. The glacier ceases to flow. Glacial retreat leaves boulders and masses of scraped-together rocky debris and soil called glacial moraines. Exceptionally, some glaciers in New. The great abundance of water on the surface of Earth includes a great quantity of ice in the Polar Regions and high…, An iceberg is a large mass of free-floating ice that has broken away from a glacier. See Also Antarctic Issues and Challenges; Climate Change; Glaciation; Global Warming, Solomon, S., et al, eds. ABLATION (GLACIAL): The erosive reduction of ice or snow from the surface of a mass of ice. Most of the world’s mountain (alpine) glaciers have been retreating since about 1850. Glacial retreat since 1850 has been worldwide and rapid, affecting the availability of fresh water for irrigation and domestic use, mountain recreation, animals and plants. Glacial scouring and retreat has produced the tens of thousands of lake basins that dot much of Northern Hemisphere (including those of the Great Lakes); south of the farthest extent of glacial coverage, natural lakes are relatively rare. "Glacial Retreat Most cases of accelerated glacial retreat are probably a result of human-caused global climate change. Instead, glacial retreat refers to the melting away of a glacial. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. Find out why, and why it matters to the world, in … “Yes, it should retreat, but not so fast. Glaciers may retreat when their ice melts or ablates more quickly than snowfall can accumulate and form new glacial ice. Glaciers in alpine areas act as buffers. The resulting body of ice is…, Glacier Glaciers have melted for 2,500 years in Europe; at one ice-age point, the Aletsch nearly covered local mountain peaks. eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'global_greenhouse_warming_com-box-4','ezslot_6',263,'0','0']));Central Asian countries have also been historically dependent on the seasonal glacier melt water for irrigation and drinking supplies. Although this much melting would probably require several centuries, Greenland and Antarctica melting are each causing sea level to rise about 0.02 in (0.5 mm) per year. Materials deposited by a glacier as it retreats are called ground moraines. Disappearance of many alpine glaciers in the Andes and Himalayas could be disastrous for these persons. The alpine glaciers of the world have been in retreat since the mid-nineteenth century. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. If the fast-paced melting continues, the. © 2020 Global Greenhouse Warming. Ancient sea levels have risen and fallen many yards/meters during glacial and interglacial (warmer) periods as Earth’s water was alternately locked up in glaciers and returned to the sea as meltwater. In general, accumulation has increased over glaciers and ice sheets worldwide in recent decades, including the interiors of Antarctica and Greenland. MARQUAND, ROBERT. In early 2008, scientists with the United Nations Environment Programme announced that mountain glaciers were melting faster than ever as a result of global climate change. A small fraction of this ice, about 0.55%, exists as alpine valley glaciers, ice fields, and the like. The mass of a glacier is the amount of ice it contains; mass is added by accumulating snowfall and lost by evaporation and melting. This situation is particularly acute for irrigation in South America, where numerous artificial lakes are filled almost exclusively by glacial melt. Antarctica, too, was melting more rapidly in the early 2000s. In March 2008, the World Glacier Monitoring Service of the United Nations announced that the world’s alpine glaciers were melting faster than ever. “U.N. . The glacier is in rapid retreat, which is a fact and a clear sign of climate change,” Mr. Albrecht says. The continued glacial retreat will have a number of different quantitative impacts. Environmental Science: In Context. Also, over a billion people depend on meltwater from alpine glaciers for year-round drinking water supplies. Oerlemans, J. Sensitive satellite measurements of the altitude and gravitational attraction of the ice dome on Greenland have revealed that some of the largest glaciers funneling ice from the heartland to the sea more than doubled in speed in the early 2000s. ." It retreats—that is, its terminal edge, the end of the glacial tongue, ends at progressively higher elevations—whenever melting exceeds accumulation. Some years show gains in length, others record losses. The great tongues of ice high in the Himalayas, the Andes, the Alps and the Rockies are going back uphill at ever greater speeds, according to new research. These all depend on glacier-melt, and in the longer term and to some extent so does the level of the oceans. Alpine glaciers have recently accelerated their retreat and large ice-sheet glaciers have been accelerating their flow to the sea along the coasts of Greenland and the West Antarctic Peninsula. CNN.com. “Greenland is of major significance to the rest of the world in our struggle to halt climate change,” Mr. Barroso told reporters afterward. Viewed from atop this lookout in the Riederalp area northeast of Geneva, the Aletsch Glacier curves through a 2,000-meter- (1.2-mile) high valley like a massive freeway of packed ice—23 kilometers (14.2 miles) long, 900 meters deep. The jumble of rock, gravel, and dirt making up … If melted, it would provide a liter of water a day for every inhabitant of Earth for six years. In recent decades, Pine Island Glacier's rapid retreat raised fears that the glacier could "collapse," freeing the ice sheet it buffers to flow even more rapidly into the southern seas. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Undercutting of the mountain slope by glacial erosion and the retreat of the glacier are the main contributing factors for the rock avalanches, along with thawing permafrost and weaknesses in the bedrock. . This has technically been going on since the industrial revolution, but as emissions have continued to increase the issue has only become increasingly exacerbated. The rate of melting more than doubled from 2004–2005 to 2005–2006 at 30 closely monitored “reference glaciers” around the world. The glacier reduces in size as the ice in the zone of wastage melts. “Glaciers in Retreat.” New York Times (July 17, 2007). Its retreat is visible in this photo, where the glacier’s front edge looms several meters behind the tombstone-like marker that indicates the edge of the ice in 1992. The retreat—combined with some of the most extensive thinning on the icefield—created new areas of open water in the fjord (dark blue) and exposed rocky fjord walls (brown). The Little Ice Age was a period from about 1550 to 1850 when the world experienced relatively cool temperatures compared to the present. Environmental Science: In Context. As the glaciers retreat, these coastal United Nations Environment Programme. These all depend on glacier-melt, and in the longer term and to some extent so does the level of the oceans. ‘Nepalese Glaciers, Glacier Retreat and its Impact to the Broader Perspective of Nepal’ Dr. Arun. The glacier flows back to its origin. The Holocene glacial retreat is a geographical phenomenon that involved the global deglaciation of glaciers that previously had advanced during the Last Glacial Maximum. Glacier Retreat Introduction. But the overall figure is one of shrinkage. Sea level rose at about 0.13 inches (3.3 mm) per year for 1993–2003, partly as the result of increased ocean volume from glacial melting and partly from the expansion of warming seawater. 15,000 years ago. Less ice is supplied to the terminus of the glacier. A glacier retreats when its terminus does not extend as far downvalley as it previously did. Environmental Science: In Context. MASS BALANCE (GLACIAL): The difference between the accumulation and ablation (reduction) of ice mass over a period of time. “The ice is melting faster than anybody predicted…. b. Studies show that human-caused global warming is the leading cause of glacier retreat. British scientists announced in 2007 that over 300 glaciers on the West Antarctica Peninsula (which, along with the Arctic, has experienced about twice as much warming as the rest of world as a whole) had sped up by 12% from 1993 to 2003. Every other continent is warming, and the Arctic is warming fastest of anywhere on earth." Introduction ICE SHEET: Glacial ice that covers at least 19,500 square mi (50,000 square km) of land and that flows in all directions, covering and obscuring the landscape below it. A retreating glacier loses more water than it gains and so causes sea level to rise. Howat, Ian M. “Rapid Changes in Ice Discharge from Greenland Outlet Glaciers.” Science 315 (2007): 1559–1561. Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Rather, the ice sheets seem to be responding in mere decades. The potential for major sea level rise depends mostly on a significant melting of the polar ice caps of Greenland and Antarctica, as this is where the vast majority of glacial ice is located. GLACIAL RETREAT 1 KENAI FJORDS NATIONAL PARK: L a n d s a t P h o t o – D r y V a l l e y K.F.N.P is located on the southeastern portion of Alaska’s Kenai (pronounced: Key-nigh) Peninsula, bordering the Gulf of Alaska. Credit: ICIMOD/Samjwal Bajracharya When Europeans or scientists at the recent global Live Earth program want a quick data point for global warming, the Aletsch provides an example—even if not as dramatic a one as the melt flows in Greenland or Antarctica. A glacier retreats when more ice melts away during the summer than that which forms during the winter. Green.TV • 20 October 2015. First, melting of glacial ice raises sea level by increasing the amount of water in the oceans. Large temporary lakes of glacial meltwater may rupture, causing catastrophic floods and even shifting global climate by dumping freshwater into the oceans and so altering their circulation. Typically, glaciers exist and may even form in areas where: Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. B. Shrestha, Hydrologist-Engineers, Snow and Glaciers Hydrology Unit, Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DHM)/Ministry of Science and Technology, Kathmandu Nepal. Glaciers form at high latitudes and altitudes where vast quantities of fallen snow accumulate over time and compress into thick masses of ice that flow downhill under their own weight. Major scientific uncertainties linger about the mechanisms and future progress of glacial melting, especially with regard to the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica. 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