The death of Herod was in January 1 BC according to some scholars. – d. 15 martie, 44 î.Hr., în română cunoscut și ca Iulius Cezar) a fost un lider politic și general roman și una dintre cele mai influente și mai controversate personalități din istorie. [50][61], Gaius was played by Earl Rhodes in the 1976 TV series I, Claudius. Julius Caesar himself may have propagated the derivation from the elephant, an animal that was said to have been called transl. As the emperor had no sons, he adopted Gaius, who became Gaius Julius Caesar, and his brother, Lucius, in the hope that they would succeed him. [11] Shortly after their adoption in the summer, Augustus held the fifth-ever Ludi Saeculares ("Secular Games"). by George Davis Chase, "The Origin of Roman Praenomina". Gaius Julius Caesar (son of Agrippa) Born Gaius Vipsanius Agrippa in 20 BC, he was the son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder, and grandson of Augustus. Augustus taught Gaius and Lucius how to read, swim, and the other elements of education, taking special pains to train them to imitate his own handwriting, mostly by himself. [60], Both Tacitus and Cassius Dio suggested foul play may have been involved in the death of Gaius and Lucius and that Gaius's step grandmother Livia may have had a hand in their deaths. [36], Cassius Dio, in a fragmentary notice,[50] mentions trouble in Egypt which was suppressed by a tribune of the Praetorian Guard. The council decided to ratify the will brought by Archelaus, which included a large bequest to Augustus and his wife Livia. Agrippa returned to Campania in Italy, where he fell ill and died soon after. Gaius Caesar was consul in AD 1 and the grandson of Augustus, the first emperor of the Roman Empire. [15] The death of Gaius' father made succession a pressing issue. He in turn arranged a marriage for his son Gaius to Aurelia Cotta, a daughter from the Cotta branch of the gens Aurelia. 2 Quas legationes Caesar, quod in Italiam Illyricumque properabat, inita proxima aestate ad se reverti iussit. As Phraates was not willing to go to war, he agreed to evacuate Armenia and abandon his brothers who were still in Roman captivity. [20] Weinstock called these the "usual playful etymologies of no consequence". The etymology of the name Caesar is still unknown and was subject to many interpretations even in antiquity. Later used by Pliny for the wooly part of a plant; early form: Cf. This served to restore stability to the region, whilst keeping Judaea from becoming powerful. in Rome; died there Mar. Gaio Giulio Cesare was born on July 13, 0100 in Rome, Roman Republic. a group of Roman senators murdered Julius Caesar as he sat on the podium at a senate meeting.The dictator fell bleeding to his death from 23 … See Andrew Steinmann, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gaius_Caesar&oldid=988335232, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the DGRBM, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the DGRBM without a Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the DGRBM, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 November 2020, at 15:10. Since the Gauls came to know the elephant through the Punic commander Hannibal, it is possible that the animal was also known under the name caesar or caesai in Gaul. He played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. [57], While Gaius was in Armenia, his brother Lucius had been sent by Augustus to complete his military training in Spain. Agrippa acted as tribune in the Senate to pass important legislation and, though he lacked some of the emperor's power and authority, he was approaching the position of co-regent. [42], Preparations for the war continued into the spring and summer of 1 AD, at which point there had been a successful breakthrough in negotiations. the identification of Vediovis with Iuppiter and Apollo (see above; A later Republican inscription mentions a member of the Julian family named K(AESO) IVLIVS (. However, his most defining trait is the fact that he is extremely overweight, an oddity amongst Heroic Spirits. probably Punic language,[23] thereby following the claims of his family that they inherited the cognomen from an ancestor, who had received the name after killing an elephant, possibly during the first Punic War. There were few the Emperor trusted to settle matters in the east, but he was confident Gaius could. [19] Others derived Iulius from King Ilus, who was the founder of Ilion (Troy). Cha của Caesar, cũng được gọi là Gaius Julius Caesar, đã làm tới chức thống đốc Asia thuộc La Mã, có lẽ bởi vì sự ảnh hưởng của Gaius Marius, anh hùng chiến tranh và một nhà chính trị nổi bật lúc bấy giờ, người đã cưới chị của cha Caesar, Julia. [49] This is probably evidenced by the continuation of coinage in the king's name after Gaius' consulship. Roman statesman, political leader, general, and writer. [14] The year before, Tiberius' brother Drusus the Elder died on his way back from a campaign across the Rhine. (That is, the s between vowels did not change to r.) Using the Latin alphabet as it existed in the day of Julius Caesar(100 BC – 44 BC) (i.e., without lower case letters, "J", or "U"), Caesar's name is properly rendered GAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR (the spelling CAIVS is also attested and is interchangeable with the more common GAIVS; however the letter C was used with its antique pronunci… [39] Suetonius wrote that it was Lollius' growing influence that compelled Tiberius to plead with Augustus for his return to Rome. Marriage and Issue Edit Caesar married Cornelia and had one daughter, Julia. [2] (That is, the s between vowels did not change to r.) Using the Latin alphabet as it existed in the day of Julius Caesar (100 BC – 44 BC) (i.e., without lower case letters, "J", or "U"), Caesar's name is properly rendered GAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR (the spelling CAIVS is also attested and is interchangeable with the more common GAIVS; however the letter C was used with its antique pronunciation of [g], as it was an adaptation of Greek gamma). Gaius Julius Caesar was the name of several members of the gens Julia in ancient Rome. The Emperor entrusted Gaius with proconsular authority and had his second cousin, Livilla, marry him. After Gaius opened negotiations with Phraates, Lollius offered the Parthian king certain concessions in return for money. [19], Many honors were heaped upon Gaius by citizens and city officials of the Empire, including Colonia Obsequens Iulia Pisana (Pisa), where it was decreed that proper rites must be observed by matrons to lament his passing. The tribunician power allowed him to control the Senate. However, Marcellus died of an illness that had spread throughout the city of Rome that year. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.. She was deemed guilty of committing adultery on multiple accounts by her father Augustus (Dio, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFSmith1873 (. On his mother's side, he was the oldest grandson of emperor Augustus. He was the stepson of Tiberius by his mother Julia's marriage to him, and Brother in law of Claudius by his sister Agrippina the Elder's marriage to Germanicus. Gaio Giulio Cesare, Writer: La conquête des Gaules. Livilla was the daughter of Drusus the Elder and Antonia Minor. The aurei and denarii issued in 13–12 BC made clear the Emperor's dynastic plans for Gaius and Lucius. Gaius Julius Caesar is a minor antagonist from Reincarnation no Kaben.He is one of the five elite generals of The Sinners Organization and also one of the original members of the organization itself alongside Kouu, Charlotte Corday, Adolf Hitler, Pol Pot and Albert DeSalvo. He would experience an accelerated political career befitting a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, with the Roman Senate allowing him to advance his career without first holding a quaestorship or praetorship, offices that ordinary senators were required to hold as part of the cursus honorum.[1]. His family were closely connected with the Marian faction in Roman politics. Gaius Caesar (/ˈsiːzər/; 20 BC – 21 February AD 4) was consul in AD 1 and the grandson of Augustus, the first emperor of the Roman Empire. To commemorate his brief life, a cenotaph was erected on the Limyrus River at Limyra in Lycia. juvenescent theophoric name of Iovis, which used to be one of the older names of the god Iuppiter. He encountered no serious opposition as there were only a few revolts he had to suppress as a result of the nationalist party. [54][55] At first the wound did not seem serious and he was able to complete the pacification of Armenia, a relatively easy task. (The letterform Æ is a ligature, which is often encountered in Latin inscriptions, where it was used to save space, and is nothing more than the letters "ae".) The old spelling remained valid in later times and existed alongside Gaius, especially in the form of the abbreviation C. The only known original Roman etymology of Gaius is expressed as a gaudio parentum,[9] meaning that the name Gaius stems from the Latin verb gaudere ("to rejoice", "to be glad"). [45], It was about this time that Augustus passed through Judea and commended Gaius for not offering prayers at Jerusalem, as it would have been provocative to the Jews living there. [18][19] Roman support for the young prince soon spread through Italy;[20] statues and inscriptions were set up in every district to commemorate the fact that he had been nominated as a consul at an unprecedented age of fourteen. The name of the dictator Julius Caesar—Latin script: CAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR—was often extended by the official filiation Gai filius ("son of Gaius"), rendered as Gaius Iulius Gai filius Caesar. Pliny says he amassed a fortune from his crimes and that, as a result, his granddaughter could afford to wear jewelry worth 40,000,000 sesterces, a considerable amount of money. In order to prepare Gaius for his encounter with the Arabs, Juba wrote him a treatise. Caesar, Gaius Julius Born 102 or 100 B.C. [25] Caesar displayed an elephant above the name CAESAR on his first denarius, which he probably had minted while still in Gallia Cisalpina. At the age of twenty-three, the young man whom the Emperor considered his heir and sole hope of prosperity had abandoned his prospects of reputation and power in a wild fit of despair and fear. Biography (Note, common lexica including the Wikipedia give Caesar's birth date as 13 July, which however refers to the old Roman calendar. Andreas Alföldi: "Review of St. Weinstock, Divus Julius". Tiberius came close to exterminating the Sicambri, and had those who survived transported to the Roman side of the Rhine, where they could be watched more closely. His father was a key general in Augustus' armies, commanding troops in pivotal battles against Mark Antony and Sextus Pompeius. The Emperor did not desire an open war, and the king of Parthia seemed open to peace. [25], At the same time, King Phraates IV of Parthia had seized Armenia with the help of Armenian nationalists, and expelled Tigranes IV, the king installed by Rome. Their father was no longer available to assume the reins of power if the Emperor were to die, and Augustus had to make it clear who his intended heirs were in case anything should happen. While there, he fell ill and died on 20 August 2 AD in Massalia, Gaul. [4][5][6], Gaius was born in Rome in 20 BC to Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder. [36], Author and historian John Grainger places Gaius at the Gulf of Aqaba, or in Nabataea. [62], Son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder, Emperor Augustus' only daughter (20 BC-AD 4), Cassius Dio reports that, after the games, Gaius was given command of the legions on the Ister (. [8], In 17 BC, his brother Lucius was born. In modern English usage, his full name might be something like "Gaius Iulius, the Caesar" or "Gaius Caesar of the Iulians", where 'Caesar' denoted him as a member of the 'Caesarian' family branch of the 'Iulian' clan or Iulii in proper Latin, and 'Gaius' was his personal name. [30][53] The eastern campaign had proven severe: his health was weak and his mental balance unstable. A large force of rebels had occupied the fortress in the city of Artagira. Caesar was married to Aurelia, a member of the Aurelii and Rutilii families. [17] Therefore, Alföldi (1975) is correct in rejecting this proposed etymological origin. When he was 16, his father, an important regional governor in Asia also named Gaius Julius Caesar, died. 260 lions were slaughtered in the Circus Maximus, there was gladiatorial combat, a naval battle between the "Persians" and the "Athenians", and 36 crocodiles were slaughtered in the Circus Flaminius. [60] Posthumously, the Senate voted honors for the young Caesars, and arranged for the golden spears and shields the boys had received on achieving the age of military service to be hung in the Senate House. [16] By tracing their descent from Aeneas, the Iulii belonged to the so-called "Trojan" families of Rome. Lollius strove to turn Gaius against Tiberius; Gaius, in any case, had no affection for the man who had contributed, directly or indirectly, to the ruin of his mother. Temples, public baths, and shops shut their doors as women wept inconsolably. Negotiations were probably hastened by the presence of Gaius' army in Syria, which threatened Parthia. [12], That year his family left for the province of Syria, because Agrippa was given command of the eastern provinces with proconsular imperium maius. Gaius was drawn into the conflict, and invaded Armenia in late August of 2 AD. [24][25], The cities of Judaea rose in revolt after the procurator, Sabinus, garrisoned Syria Palaestina to guard the tens of millions of sesterces promised to the Emperor. Apart from using the elephant as a claim for extraordinary political power in Rome,[26] the coin is an unmasked allusion to this etymology of the name and directly identifies Caesar with the elephant, because the animal treads a Gallic serpent-horn, the carnyx, as a symbolic depiction of Caesar's own victory.[27]. [17], Gaius was elected consul designatus by the Comitia Centuriata in 6 BC with the intention that he should assume the consulship in his twentieth year. Before the introduction of the letter 'G' into the Latin alphabet, i.e. Gaius Julius Caesar (102 B.C 44 B.C.) before the censorship of Appius Claudius Caecus in 312 BC,[8] the name was only written as Caius. Gaius Julius Caesar appears to be a man in his mid-twenties, wearing a red coat of a uniform with golden buttons over a white shirt, a pink tie, shoulder pads, and a white skirt. It was here that Phraates, offended by Lollius, disclosed the guardian's secret negotiations to Gaius. [2][3][4], With Marcellus gone, Augustus arranged for the marriage of Agrippa to his daughter Julia the Elder, who was previously the wife of Marcellus. The assassination of Julius Caesar was the result of a conspiracy by many Roman senators led by Gaius Cassius Longinus, Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, and Marcus Junius Brutus. Compare the Hungarian, Slavic and Turkish words for "king", forms of kral, all adapted from Karl, the personal name of Charlemagne. Though contemporary writers sometimes referred to him as "Gaius Caesar," the name's historical usage was not the same as it is in the 21st century. Gaius was one of the three praenomina regularly used by the Julii Caesares, the others being Lucius and Sextus. It was in vain: Gaius died in a little Lycian town on 21 February 4 AD. [30][43] In the second half of the year,[44] Gaius had advanced with his army to the Parthian frontier to an unknown spot and brought Phraates to a final agreement on the proposals, in which he renounced all claims to Armenia and all power over his half-brothers. According to Pliny, the young prince made it as far as the Gulf of Aqaba. When he was sixteen, his father died and Caesar became the head of the family. He was a part of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, and was related to all the Julio-Claudian emperors. In 1 BC, Gaius was given command of the eastern provinces, after which he concluded a peace treaty with King Phraates V of Parthia on an island in the Euphrates. It is very likely this man was part of Gaius' entourage, but other than that nothing is known of him. Although he was born to Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia, Augustus' only daughter, Gaius and his younger brother, Lucius Caesar, were raised by their grandfather as his adopted sons and joint-heirs to the empire. The year after Gaius' consulship, Lucius died at Massilia in the month of August. His youngest brother, Postumus, participated in the Trojan game with the rest of the equestrian youth. Augustus immediately adopted both Gaius and Lucius from their father by a symbolic sale, and named both Gaius and Lucius his (personal) heirs. Weinstock (1971) made a case for Iullus being a diminutive, i.e. [30][56][53], By the next year (3 AD), he was entirely prostrated by the effects of his wound, had resigned his command, and withdrawn to Syria from where he informed Augustus that he had no further desire to take part in public life. [14], Also in 13 BC, Agrippa and Augustus returned to Rome. caesai in the "Moorish", i.e. [60] The caskets containing their ashes were stored in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside those of their father Agrippa and other members of the imperial family. Gaius Julius Caesar (13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general and statesman. Augustus sent Agrippa to Pannonia at the end of 13 to suppress a rebellion. He is always seen wearing a … One half remained under Archelaus, while the other half was subdivided between his brothers, Antipas and Philip. [41], His inexperience meant he was forced to rely on his companions, namely the unruly Lollius, who had taken advantage of the powers he held, and was reportedly holding towns, individuals, and even sovereign princes for ransom. Shortly afterward, he was appointed to the office of consul for the following year, 1 AD. A longer version can also be found, however rarely: Gaius Iulius Gai(i) filius Gai(i) nepos Caesar ("Gaius Julius Caesar, son of Gaius, grandson of Gaius"). [11] But no supporting evidence has been found to this day. He would experience an accelerated political career befitting a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, with the Roman Senate allowing him to advance his career without first holding a quaestorship or The name Caesar probably originated in Italy from a dialect of Latium which did not share the rhotacism of the Roman dialect. They stabbed Caesar (23 times) to death in a location adjacent to the Theatre of Pompey on the Ides of March 15 March 44 BC. The Romans weren't the only ones interested in Armenia: the Parthians stirred up a revolt among nationalists in the nation. Early Life. Gaius Julius Caesar II married a woman from the patrician Marcii Reges, a union his father would have arranged. He had to be carried away by his outraged lieutenants. [48] Juba II, former king of Mauretania, accompanied Gaius to the east. From early on, Agrippa was trusted to handle affairs in the eastern provinces and was even given the signet ring of Augustus, who was seemingly on his deathbed in 23 BC, a sign that he would become princeps were Augustus to die. Gaius, Iulius, and Caesar are Caesar's praenomen, nomen, and cognomen, respectively. [6] Suetonius also speaks of the additional cognomen Pater Patriae,[7] which would render Caesar's complete name as Imperator Gaius Iulius Caesar Pater Patriae Divus. His forces promptly laid siege to the city and captured the fortress after intense fighting. In 4 AD, following the deaths of Gaius and Lucius, Augustus adopted his stepson, Tiberius, as well as his sole-surviving grandson, Agrippa Postumus. Lucius, three years his junior, was granted the same honors after the appropriate interval had elapsed. Gaius Iulius Caesar, [ˈgaːjʊs ˈjuːlijʊs ˈkaesar], 100-44 v.Chr) isch en römische Politiker, Triumvir, Outor, Fäudherr u Diktator gsi. 3 Ipse in Carnutes, Andes, Turonos quaeque civitates propinquae iis locis erant ubi bellum gesserat, legionibus in hiberna deductis, in Italiam profectus est. Suetonius further wrote that Tiberius wrote to the Emperor that Lollius be replaced. The adoption of the boys coupled with the games served to introduce a new era of peace – the Pax Augusta. [32] Lollius' rivalry with Tiberius continued even after Gaius and his entourage reached Syria. [5] After his senatorial consecration as Divus Iulius in 42 BC, the dictator perpetuo bore the posthumous name Imperator Gaius Iulius Caesar Divus (IMP•C•IVLIVS•CAESAR•DIVVS, best translated as "Commander [and] God Gaius Julius Caesar"), which is mostly given as his official historical name. 15, 44 B.C. This article incorporates material from the Citizendium article "Gaius Julius Caesar (name)", which is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License but not under the GFDL. Livia's presumed motive may have been to orchestrate the accession of her own son Tiberius as heir to Augustus. On March 15, 44 B.C. He marched his army between the Elbe and the Rhine, and met little resistance, except from the Sicambri. [28], In order to free up the legions there, the Kingdom of Judaea was divided among the sons of Herod the Great. xpu – transl. Members of the Julian family later connected the name Iulus with ἰοβόλος ("the good archer") and ἴουλος ("the youth whose first beard is growing"). Having been designated consul, he was allowed to give his opinion to the senate. Caesar's grand-nephew, Gaius Octavius Thurinus, duly took the full name "Gaius Julius Caesar" upon Caesar's posthumous adoption of him in 44 BC (while legally he should have been "Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus", and was/is called as such by contemporaries and historians, he himself never used either of his original surnames again), and the name of Caesar became fused with the imperial dignity after Octavianus became the first Roman Emperor, Augustus; in this sense it is preserved in the German and Bulgarian words Kaiser and Tsar (sometimes spelled Czar), both of which refer to an emperor. Gaius Julius Caesar (Classical Latin: [ˈɡaː.i.ʊs ˈjuː.li.ʊs ˈkae̯.sar]; 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known as Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician, general, and notable author of Latin prose. [note 2] On one occasion, Lollius offered to decapitate Tiberius if Gaius gave the word. Having settled matters in Judaea, the Emperor decided to deploy an army to Armenia to re-establish its status as a Roman protectorate and to show the eastern world that Rome held dominion over all land as far as the Euphrates. Late in 48 BC, he was appointed dictator again, with a term of one year. [10] Their adoptive father initiated them into administrative life when they were still young, and sent them to the provinces as consuls-elect. It is known that the Nabataean Kingdom later became the province of Arabia, and so, it might be that Gaius conducted his "Arabian expedition" to either support or to discipline the King of Nabataea, Aretas IV. [58] In the span of 18 months, the planned future of Rome was shaken. [note 1][30], Friends of Augustus had hoped that he would abandon his plan of sending Gaius to the east but, faced with the troubles in the east, he persisted with the plan and dispatched Gaius to Syria at the beginning of 1 BC. Gaius Iulius Caesar (limba latină: IMP•C•IVLIVS•CAESAR•DIVVS 1; n. 13 iulie, ca. [26] The governor of Syria, Varus, was forced to bring in the legions from Syria to restore order. From every corner the young consul was visited by envoys offering requests and paying homage. Proposed e.g. [52], At the same time, the throne of Armenia had become vacant and, with permission from the Emperor, Gaius placed Ariobarzanes II of Atropatene on the throne. user since Fri Oct 9 2020 at 13:05:08 (1.7 months ago ) last seen Fri Nov 13 2020 at 19:07:00 (2.2 weeks ago ) number of write-ups 16 - View Gaius Julius Caesar's writeups level / experience 2 (Acolyte) / 302 most recent writeup November 1, 2020 The leading vowels in each part of the name are long, and in Classical Latin, the whole name was pronounced [ˈɡajjʊs ˈjuːlɪ.ʊs ˈkae̯sar], or, alternatively, with praenomen pronounced trisyllabically as [ˈɡaːɪ.ʊs]. Gaius is an archaic Latin name and one of the earliest Roman praenomina. Nonetheless, he was only eighteen, and therefore too young for the conduct of important business. It is often seen abbreviated to C. IVLIVS CAESAR. Tiberius was alienated at the meeting, by the behavior of both Lollius and Gaius' centurions. Gaius Julius Caesar (Greek: ΓΑΙΟΣ ΙΟΥΛΙΟΣ ΚΑΙΣΑΡ)[1] was a prominent name of the Gens Julia from Roman Republican times, borne by a number of figures, but most notably by the general and dictator Julius Caesar. [30][31], Due to his youth and inexperience, the Emperor had others go with him as advisors. [16], To learn about military affairs, he accompanied Tiberius in his campaign against the Sicambri in 8 BC. [3] Caesar often spoke of himself only as Caius Caesar,[4] omitting the nomen gentile Iulius. The name Caesar probably originated in Italy from a dialect of Latium which did not share the rhotacism of the Roman dialect. [28], Due to his advanced age, Augustus was unable to travel to the east himself. In: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gaius_Julius_Caesar_(name)&oldid=984509822, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from Citizendium, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 October 2020, at 13:23. [34] According to Suetonius, Gaius gave Tiberius a cold reception on the isle of Samos. Approximately eighteen months later, Gaius died of an illness in Lycia. He was a writer, known for La conquête des Gaules (1923) and Caesar the Conqueror (1962). Various reasons, such as an attempt by Rome to control the incense trade, have been suggested but never proven. Gaius Julius Caesar (/ ˈ s iː z ər / SEE-zər, Latin: [ˈɡaːi.ʊs ˈjuːli.ʊs ˈkae̯.sar]; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general and statesman who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.. Caesar used the animal during his conquest of Gaul and probably of Britain,[24] which is further supported by the inclusion of forty elephants on the first day of Caesar's Gallic triumph in Rome. Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was an early supporter of Augustus (then "Octavius") during the Final War of the Roman Republic that ensued as a result of the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BC. Gaius made a good choice, because his presence represented that of the imperial family – all orders, promises, or threats coming from him were as valid as if they came from the Emperor himself. He died on March 15, 0044 in Rome. Augustus, as usual, declined the sole responsibility of decision. Agrippa arrived there that winter (in 12 BC), but the Pannonians gave up their plans. It is certain that this expedition happened before his time in Armenia, and, referencing Gaius' cenotaph in Pisa, it is almost certain to have taken place during his consulship. [34] The identification of the cognomina Kaeso and Caesar was indeed supposed by Pliny, but is—according to Alföldi (1975)—unwarranted.[35]. 2Alarmed by these tidings and letters, Caesar levied two new legions in Hither Gaul, and, at the beginning of summer, sent Q. Pedius, his lieutenant, to conduct them further into Gaul. [18][19], Following the death of King Herod of Judaea in 4 BC,[23] his sons Antipas and Archelaus both came to Rome with their own copy of Herod's will to plead their case as to why they each deserved to inherit their father's kingdom. Tiberius was given command of Germania, and waged two campaigns across the Rhine in 8 BC and 7 BC. Among his entourage to the east were: Marcus Lollius as adiutor ("helper"),[32] Publius Sulpicius Quirinus as rector ("guide"),[33] the future historian Velleius Paterculus,[34] Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus (grandfather of Nero),[35] Juba II of Numidia,[36] and future praetorian prefect Sejanus. Är isch vo Brutus u republikanisch gsinnte Senatore erschdoche worde, wo Angscht gha hei, dass är wet König vo Rom wärde. [27] Historian Ferrero speculates that Phraates may have been hoping to use Armenia as a bargaining chip to secure the release of his sons who were held captive by the Romans. Weinstock's argument however relies on a hypothetical intermediate form *Iovilus, and he stated himself that Iullus can't originally have been a theophoric name and could therefore only have become one at a secondary stage, after the Julians had established the identification of Iulus as their gentilician god Vediovis (also: Veiovis), who was a "young Iuppiter" himself. [7] An annual sacrifice on his birthday was granted in a decree. Gaius Julius Caesar (Greek: ΓΑΙΟΣ ΙΟΥΛΙΟΣ ΚΑΙΣΑΡ) was a prominent name of the Gens Julia from Roman Republican times, borne by a number of figures, but most notably by the general and dictator Julius Caesar. Gaius Julius Caesar. He also was the uncle of Caligula, who was the son of his sister Agrippina. He was the brother of Sextus Julius Caesar (consul in 91 BC) and the son of Gaius Julius Caesar. The next year, Augustus made him a pontifex, and granted him the right to attend senate meetings, behold spectacles, and to be present at banquets with senators. In Greek, during Caesar's time, his name was written Καῖσαρ, which was pronounced more or less the same. One of the most daring and brilliant generals of all time, Julius Caesar combined the elements of tactical genius with the shrewdness of a master politician. Although he was born to Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia, Augustus' only daughter, Gaius and his younger brother, Lucius Caesar, were raised by their grandfather as his adopted sons and joint-heirs to the empire. While in Egypt, he got into an affair with Cleopatra VII of Egypt, and had a son, Caesarion, who briefly reigned as pharaoh until his assassination. [42][51] The death of Lollius was fortunate to Tiberius, after which Gaius consented to his return to Rome and consequent return to Roman politics. 100 î.Hr. It might be outdated or ideologically biased. They had two daughters, known as Julia Major and Julia Minor, and a son, Gaius, who was born in 100 BC. [9] It is unknown what their father thought of the adoption. [18] This has however no etymological value and is only a retrofitting interpretation concerned with the earlier institution of the Vediovis-cult in Rome together with a statue of Iulus-Vediovis as a (possibly bearded) archer. The Aurelii Cottae had been plebeian nobles from the mid-3rd century BC, when two ancestors attained the consulship. Age of Empires III Definitive Edition: Kampagne #1 Der Falke landet auf Malta … Roman nomenclature is somewhat different from the modern English form. [46], Sometime in the course of his time in the east, Gaius led an expedition into Arabia. Agrippa was given tribunicia potestas ("the tribunician power") in 18 BC, a power that Augustus received in 23 BC, and later on was exercised only by the emperor and shared with some heirs (Agrippa, Tiberius). Before Rome could deal with the Parthians in Armenia, it would first need to make its Syrian legions available, which were still tied down in Palestine. As a priest not only had to be of patrician stock, but married to a patrician, Caesar broke off his engagement to a plebian girl and married the patrician, Cornelia, daughter of a high profile and influential … Caesar then pursued Pompey to Egypt, where Pompey was soon murdered. With his charismatic leadership, his powerful intellect and his magnetic personal charm, Julius Caesar became the idol of men and women everywhere. He was married to his second cousin Livilla but they did not have children. [22] The suffix –ar is highly unusual for Latin, but is a common suffix in the Sabine Oscan language. [53], On September 9, Abbadon, the leader of the rebellion, invited Gaius into the fortress to speak with him. Virgil[12] and his commentator Servius[13] wrote that the gens Iulia had received their name Iulius from the family's common ancestor, Aeneas' son Ascanius,[14] who was also known under his cognomen Iulus, which is a derivative of iulus, meaning "wooly worm". This year, monuments were raised to him and to his brother as the son of Ares or as Ares himself. [21], In earlier times Caesar could originally have been a praenomen. [37][38], On his way to Syria, Gaius met with Tiberius, who had abandoned politics and retired to Rhodes. De Gaius Julius Cäsar (lat. Julius Caesar is the son of Gaius Julius Caesar and Aurelia Cotta. Exactly where and for what purpose remains uncertain, though Pliny mentioned it in connection with Aelius Gallus' exploits in South Arabia. This etymology is commonly seen as incorrect, and the origin of Gaius is often stated as still unknown. [21][22], The following year (5 BC), when he attained military age, he assumed the toga virilis, and was introduced by Augustus to the senate, who declared him as princeps iuventutis ("leader of the youth") and sevir turmae (commander of a cavalry division). [40], The next year, on 1 January, he entered the consulship in absentia with his brother-in-law, Lucius Aemilius Paullus, in accordance with the decision of 6 BC which named him consul designate. Augustus did his best to cheer him up and convince him to return to Italy. However, as soon as he recovered, Augustus began to show he favored his nephew, Marcus Claudius Marcellus, then just 19. [29], Before leaving for the east, he and his brother Lucius were given the authority to consecrate buildings, and they did, with their management of the games held to celebrate the dedication of the Temple of Mars Ultor (1 August 2 BC). Caesar presided over his own election to a second consulship and then, after eleven days, resigned this dictatorship. [47] The term "Arabia" is never defined, and the term was used loosely by Roman sources. The praenomen Kaeso (or Caeso) was best known from the Quinctii and the Fabii, possibly derived from their ritual duty of striking with the goat-skin (februis caedere) at the luperci Quinctiales and the luperci Fabiani respectively, the Julians would then have argued that the name Caesar was identical to the Quinctian and Fabian Kaeso. In 2 BC, Julia the Elder was forced into exile after she had received a letter in Tiberius' name. Gaius Julius Caesar (The Tusculum portrait, perhaps the only surviving sculpture of Caesar made during his lifetime) photo: Gautier Poupeau, license cc-by-2.0. bce , Rome [Italy]—died March 15, 44 bce , Rome), celebrated Roman general and statesman, the conqueror of Gaul (58–50 bce ), victor in the civil war of 49–45 bce , and dictator (46–44 bce ), who was launching a … Deciding that belonging to the priesthood would bring the most benefit to the family, he managed to have himself nominated as the new High Priest of Jupiter. Julius Caesar, in full Gaius Julius Caesar, (born July 12/13, 100? [59] The deaths of both Gaius and Lucius, the Emperor's two most favored heirs, led Augustus to adopt his stepson Tiberius and his sole remaining grandson Postumus as his new heirs on 26 June 4 AD. [10] Some have linked the name to an unknown Etruscan phrase, others to the gentilician name Gavius, which possibly might have lost the medial v in the course of time. [19] Gaius, who was twenty, had reached Asia, and was probably at Antioch at the time his consulship commenced, where he was organizing an army for the invasion of Armenia and opening negotiations with Phraates in the hopes of securing an agreement. Julius Caesar was born in Rome on 12 or 13 July 100 BC into the prestigious Julian clan. [15] Such nicknames were typical for cognomina and were the base of old gentilician names. He convened a council of senators, among whom he included Gaius. [49], In the year following his consulship, in spring, he had held a meeting with Phraates on the bank of the Euphrates, in which a banquet was held to celebrate a peace treaty. Är het under anderum Gallie eroberet, d Helvetier unterworfe, de römisch Bürgerchrieg gwunne u Ägypte eroberet. While Caesar hailed from Roman aristocrats, his family was far from rich. Roman supremacy in Asia depended on its possession of Armenia as a protectorate. Several other interpretations were propagated in antiquity, all of which remain highly doubtful: Another interpretation of Caesar deriving from the verb caedere ("to cut") could theoretically have originated in the argument of the Julians for receiving a sodality of the Lupercalia, the luperci Iulii (or Iuliani). It was for the crime of extorting presents from kings (regnum muneribus) that Lollius lost the friendship of Gaius and drank poison. [13] Four years later, in 13 BC, Gaius took part in the Trojan games with the other patrician youths at the dedication of the Theatre of Marcellus. It proved to be a trick, and Gaius was wounded in the confrontation. The last emperor of the dynasty was Nero, who was Gaius' great-nephew and the grandson of Germanicus. The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). He, himself, as soon as there began to be plenty of forage, came to the army. 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